Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT)

Overview

Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) is a condition in which the semen sample has Oligozoospermia, which is low sperm count, Asthenozoospermia, which is poor motility and teratozoospermia, which is abnormal morphology of sperm. OAT is the most common kind of male infertility.

Causes

Medications like steroids and those that treat cancer, depression and blood pressure can affect fertility.

  • Genetics factors may affect sperm motility, production and transport.
  • Abnormal hormone levels
  • Anti-sperm antibodies
  • Infections of the reproductive system.
  • Lifestyle habits and choices like alcohol consumption, smoking and illegal drugs.
Symptoms
  • Infertility or inability to get the partner pregnant even after one year of trying.
  • Swelling on the scrotum.
Diagnosis
  • History and physical examination
    The fertility expert will collect information about your past and present health. The questions will include surgeries in the past, medication and consumption of drugs, alcohol or smoking.
  • Blood test
    A blood test will tell the fertility expert about your hormonal levels and general health.
  • Genetic tests
    Your fertility expert may ask for genetic tests to be done to rule out abnormal genes that may be causing infertility.
  • Semen analysis
    A sample of the semen will be tested to look for anomalies and reasons for infertility.
  • Spermatic venography
    This is a test that helps to check the scrotum for the position of the veins. A dye will be put into your body and an X-ray will be taken to show varicoceles.
  • Scrotal ultrasound
    An ultrasound may be used to find changes and lumps in the testicles.
Treatment
  • Medical treatment
    Depending upon the cause of OAT, medication may be prescribed by the doctor. They can include steroids, hormonal therapy or antioxidants.
  • Percutaneous embolization
    This is a procedure used to treat varicocele. The blood flow to the enlarged veins is blocked in the procedure.
  • Sperm retrieval
    Sperm from the testicles may be removed to be used to fertilize the partner’s egg or can be saved for future use.
  • Surgery
    Surgery may be done to remove a varicocele.

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