A testicular biopsy is a tissue sample taken from the testicle to diagnose the causes of male infertility and for extracting a sperm sample IVF. Testicular biopsy in men with azoospermia (complete lack of sperm in the semen) can help fertility experts determine the root cause of infertility. Before a biopsy, the doctors will seek a complete medical history of the individual.
Testicular biopsy is performed in one of two methods – a percutaneous method or an open method. In a percutaneous method, the surgeon will use a thin needle to extract a tissue sample from the testicle without the need for any incision or stitches. For an open procedure, the surgeon will make a small incision into the skin of the testicle to remove a small tissue sample.
In most cases, the procedure is an outpatient one, and the procedure can be completed in a single day. Patients are required to abstain from sexual activity for 7-10 days after the procedure.
The collected sample is examined in a laboratory to ascertain the causes associated with sperm production. The analysis is likely to include – blocked vas deferens, swelling of the veins that drain fluid from the testicles, undescended testicles, hormonal imbalances, tumours, and other underlying causes of infertility.