The diagnosis of male infertility is often a multi-step procedure because there can be more than one causes of the same, and it needs to be thoroughly investigated for comprehensive treatment. Once a couple who have been trying to conceive unsuccessfully see a specialist understand the causes of their unsuccessful conception, they will be required to undergo a series of tests and procedures to determine the same.
Firstly, a general medical examination and understanding of the patient’s history will be required, determining if he has any inherited conditions, chronic health problems, illnesses, injuries, or surgeries that could affect fertility. A physical examination will be conducted to check for any trauma or injuries to the testicular area.
Following this, the patient will be required to undergo semen analysis, which will help the fertility expert understand the number of sperm, shape and sperm motility. The patient will be required to provide a sperm sample. In most cases, the patient will be required to provide multiple sperm samples to rule out any inaccuracies.
In addition to sperm analysis, a patient may be asked to undergo various other procedures that help ascertain any underlying conditions. These include:
- Scrotal ultrasound to establish issues with the testicles’
- Transrectal ultrasound to ascertain issues with the prostate
- Hormonal testing to ascertain hormonal imbalances & disorders
- Post-ejaculate urinalysis to ascertain issues concerning ejaculation
- Genetic testing to ascertain any genetic or chromosomal disorders
Once the underlying cause of infertility has been ascertained, the fertility specialist will determine a course of treatment for the individual based on the ailment, age, and other health factors. Some of the common modes of treatment for infertility in men include:
- Surgical intervention for correcting any anatomical issues with the delivery of sperm, could be in the testicles, the vas deferens, the penis and other structures.
- Infection treatment for infections in the reproductive tract
- Hormonal therapy for correcting hormonal imbalances
- Assisted reproductive techniques for unascertained infertility cases.
In all of the above, fertility treatment will also involve lifestyle changes and possible psychological help.